Fighting for animal liberation and an end to speciesism
Animal Pleasure and its Moral Significance
Written by Dr. Jonathan Balcombe
Abstract: This paper presents arguments for, and evidence in support of, the important role of pleasure in animals’ lives, and outlines its considerable signiﬁcance to humankind’s relationship to other animals.In the realms of animal sentience, almost all scholarly discussion revolves around its negative aspects: pain, stress, distress, and suffering. By contrast, the positive aspects of sentience – rewards and pleasures – have been rarely broached by scientists. Yet, evolutionary principles predict that animals, like humans, are motivated to seek rewards, and not merely to avoid pain and suffering. Natural selection favours behaviours that enhance survival and procreation. In the conscious, sentient animal, the drives to secure food, shelter, social contact, and mates are motivated by desire (appetitive behaviour) and reinforced by pleasure (consummative behaviour). This is reﬂected in animals’ behaviour in the realms of play, food, sex, and touch.
Despite the heuristic value of interpreting animal behaviour through the proximate (experiential) lens, scholarly study of animals remains entrenched almost exclusively in the ultimate (evolutionary) sphere. Not just science but also ethics suffer for this, for when we see animals as only the products of a competitive struggle for survival, we risk overlooking the positive qualities of their lives. Pleasure has moral import for such practices as factory farming and laboratory research, for it ampliﬁes the moral burden of depriving animals the opportunity to lead fulﬁlling, enjoyable lives.