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Tom Regan, Gary Francione and Ingrid Newkirk Consider Abolitionism, Divisiveness and Incrementalism.

Point/Counter Point: A Movement's Means Creates Its Ends.

Professors Regan and Francione advocate for abolitionist animal rights and Ingrid Newkirk responds.

A Movement's Means Creates Its Ends (PDF File)

(Click this (above) link for the article)

In this historical document from 1992, Professors Regan and Francione explore the fundamental difference between the philosophy of animal welfare and the philosophy of animal rights.

In response, PeTA co-founder Ingrid Newkirk discusses the issue of incremental change and whether the philosophy of abolitionism is divisive, rejecting the notion that the animal rights approach is the only effective one.


This article first appeared in The Animals' Agenda in January/February 1992. It was made available to ARZone by Professor Regan, and has been reproduced with the kind permission of The Animals' Agenda and its succeeding organisation the Animals and Society Institute (

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